The practical consequences of the emissions scandal are that affected vehicles:
are not compliant with the relevant European and UK emissions regulations and therefore should not have been registered and allowed to be driven on public roads;
emit higher volumes of NOx than was stated on their registration documents (the V5 logbook);
are fitted with an unlawful device which sensed when the vehicle was undergoing emissions testing, and altered their performance accordingly; and
have or may in the future be subject to a recall in order to fix technical measures to be carried out in order to ensure compliance with the relevant European and UK emissions regulations.